Graphics Programming: The purpose of graphics programming is to create visualisations of the mathematical processes that occur at a lower level - thus the term low end works. They will primarily use C++ graphics libraries such as OpenGL which included GLSL/HLSL. Most, if not all, studios will use DirectX11/12 which is the modern technology for the next generation consoles. However, the use of Vulkan is becoming an important player as it is more efficient than the old guard of DX11/12. They will also work closely with the artists creating tools for them to use efficiently using software like Maya/3DS max or in-house editors.