Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Brisbane is the capital of and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland. One of the oldest cities in Australia, Brisbane was founded upon the ancient homelands of the indigenous Turrbal and Jagerapeoples. Named after the Brisbane River on which it is located â€” which in turn was named after Scotsman Sir Thomas Brisbane, the Governor of New South Wales from 1821 to 1825. Brisbane has a humid subtropical climate with hot, wet summers and dry, moderately warm winters. Brisbane is in the southeast corner of Queensland.